|Introduction||This exercise is to test participants knowledge of concepts, issue areas, processes and organisations/structures. And their ability to explain them. It should be a competitive game in teams with scoring and a winner.|
|Timing/duration, timetable and delivery method||30 minutes
Facilitator hands out cards with the concepts, issues, processes divided into 5 FPI clusters to each team. Each team selects a person to draw or explain (without using any words of the issue, process, organisation etc) to the rest of the team. They have 60 seconds per issue/concept.
Facilitator shouts GO and times the round. If they team get the concept, issue etc, they win a point. They then go onto the next card and facilitator shoulds GO and again times the round.
Do this for 5 cards.
Score each team and see who wins.
Go through all cards which were not reached in the game or which were not guessed and open up to all the teams. Points to teams who get the meanings.
Tally up and see which team won. Give a prize!
|Content outline: Topics and Questions||See table below which has issues, processes etc which need to written on cards. Word on one side and explanation on the other side.|
|Required skills/knowledge of participants||Test what they know!|
|Unit objectives/expected outcomes||By the end of the session, participants will:
|Pre-workshop activities||Listening to content and engaging with workshop 🙂|
|Exercises and group discussions||Feedback after the game on how they found it, their knowledge levels and ability to explain issues|
|Additional trainer resources||Feminist Principles of the Internet|
|Equipment needed||Cards prepared before hand. Each card has a word or acronym on one side and the explanation/answer on the other. Groups of 5 per table.|
|Access||Although access to infrastructure, the cables and the satellites by which we communicate, has become more pervasive, the question of accessibility remains ever present. Aside from troubling inequalities in terms of access between the North and the South, there is a growing body of evidence on a notable gender divide exacerbated by factors such as level of employment, education, poverty, literacy and geographical location.
Although access to infrastructure, the cables and the satellites by which we communicate, has become more pervasive, the question of accessibility remains ever present. Aside from troubling inequalities in terms of access between the North and the South, there is a growing body of evidence on a notable gender divide exacerbated by factors such as level of employment, education, poverty, literacy and geographical location
|Access to ICTs and the internet needs to be “universal, affordable, unfettered, unconditional and equal”|
|Open Access||Open access refers to both content and telecommunications infrastructure. In the case of the former, open access designates free, immediate, permanent, full-text, online access, for any user, web-wide, to digital scientific and scholarly material, primarily research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. In the case of infrastructure, the open access approach is about creating a set of core values to guide infrastructure policy and regulation in a way that empowers citizens, encourages local innovation, economic growth and investment, and gets the best from public and private sector contributions. These values can be summarised as follows: a technology-neutral framework (that encourages innovative, low-cost delivery to users); competition at all layers in the internet protocol network (allowing a wide variety of physical networks and applications to interact in an open architecture); transparency to ensure fair trading within and between layers (that allows clear, comparative information on market prices and services); the circumstances where everyone can connect to everyone else at the layer interface (so that any size of organisation can enter the market and no-one takes a position of dominant market power); devolved local solutions rather than centralised ones (encouraging services that are closer to the user).|
|Intellectual Property Rights||Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are set of rights associated with creations of the human mind.
Creative Commons approach to licensing of creative works within the structures of the copyright regime that permits the authors to exercise their rights to share in the way they intend to.
Discussions on the challenges of the digital era towards intellectual property tend to focus on the ownership rights of companies and individuals. But far more daunting to the poor and to women in rural and remote societies are the challenges raised from waves of legislative change to copyright and patenting law that are led primarily by multinational companies seeking to define ownership of knowledge and to a large extent what knowledge is.
|Discussions on the challenges of the digital era towards intellectual property tend to focus on the ownership rights of companies and individuals. But far more daunting to the poor and to women in rural and remote societies are the challenges raised from waves of legislative change to copyright and patenting law that are led primarily by multinational companies seeking to define ownership of knowledge and to a large extent what knowledge is.|
|Private Sector||The part of the economy that is not state controlled, and is run by individuals and companies for profit. The private sector encompasses all for-profit businesses that are not owned or operated by the government.||A large part of internet infrastructure (and related services) is owned by the private sector.|
|Internet Infrastructure||Includes transmission media, – network cables, satellites and antennas, and routers, aggregators,repeaters, and other devices that control transmission paths. Cannot be separated from its affordability, skills of users and by the availability of content and services. Broadband infrastructure big topic these days.|
|Labour||Technology, and ICTs in particular have an impact upon work, workers and the workplace. This thematic term tackles the nature and extent of the impact upon levels of employment, skills development and working life. Call centres, ICT-enabled globally-distributed production, ICT-enabled outsourcing of work and telework, the ICT use by trade unions worldwide and the use of ICTs for the training of workers are some of the issues that labour and ICTs explores.|
|Neo-liberalism||Neoliberalism is based on the untested assumption that ‘the market’ is more efficient in service and com.modity distribution because of its profit motive. Further, it is said to be neutral – indifferent to the race, gender, class or religion of clients as long as they pay for goods and services – unlike the state, whose decisions are always biased towards political interests.||The current phase of capitalism – neo-liberalism – which began with Thatcher and Reagan in the 1970s, promotes privatisation and deregulation in order to safeguard the freedom of the individual to compete and consume without interference from a bloated state.|
|FOSS||Free and open source software (FOSS) includes programmes whose licences give users the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software as well as share copies of either the original or the modified software, under the same licence agreement. Free, in this context, refers to free use and not necessarily “free of charge”.|
|Amplify||Turn up the volume on representation of women, by women in media/internet spaces.||Women’s rights struggles, movements and issues rarely make headlines. Complicating matters, the particular nature of violence women face is not fully understood nor reflected in the work of traditional human rights institutions. Amplify women’s voices and struggles for justice.|
|Self-determination||Natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways. Women’s rights to self-determination around her body and reproductive choices for example. Constantly contested by patriarchy.|
|Pornography||The issue of pornography a divisive one in the feminist community.
The representation in books, magazines, photographs, films, and other media of scenes of sexual behaviour that are erotic or lewd and are designed to arouse sexual interest. Can perpetuate gender stereotypes and promotes violence against women.
|Child protection has dominated the debate on content regulation and the social dimension of internet security. can can be being easily manipulated by states and non-state actors as a pretext to infringe the fundamental rights of users.|
|Feminist Pornography||Developed by and/or for women and created for the purposes of encouraging women and their self-beliefs of freedom through sexuality equality and pleasur||We recognize that the issue of pornography online is a human rights and labor issue, and has to do with agency, consent, autonomy and choice. We reject simple causal linkages made between consumption of pornographic content and violence against women. We also reject the umbrella term of pornographic content labeled to any sexuality content such as educational material, SOGIE (sexual orientation, gender identity and expression) content, and expression related to women’s sexuality.|
|Censorship||Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing, public communication or accessing of information on the Internet. It can be done by governments or by private organizations like google either at the behest of government or on their own initiative. Reasons given are often national security, intellectual property rights protection etc.
Content regulation is one gesture away from censorship.
Sex and sexuality are often used to justify censorship and regulation.
Censorship can take the form of governments blocking services such as social networking platforms. Google pulling out of China as a form of censorship.
|Regulation||A series of rights and responsibilities that relate to the individual as a member of a political community, including civic, political, social and economic rights and duties. Also a set of social relationships between individuals and the state and between individuals. Feminist approach – includes a need to look at the politics of difference (amongst many others)|
|MOVEMENTS & PUBLIC PARTICIPATION|
|Citizenship||A series of rights and responsibilities that relate to the individual as a member of a political community, including civic, political, social and economic rights and duties. Also a set of social relationships between individuals and the state and between individuals. Feminist approach – includes a need to look at the politics of difference (amongst many others)|
|Surveillance||Is the monitoring of the online behaviour, content and activities usually of people and without people knowing. Done by governments, corporations, individuals. There many tools and strategies for surveillance and can be used to stalk and track women. Surveillance used against WHRDs, LGBTI sector particularly if they are seen as a “threat to the state”. Usually means violations of privacy.|
|Encryption||The process of encoding information in such a way that only the person (or computer) with the key can decode it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message content to the interceptor.
Banned in some countries.
|Promote the use of strong encryption technologies and to protect the right to seek, receive, and impart information anonymously online. strong encryption and anonymity are fundamental for the protection of cybersecurity and human rights in the digital age. Encryption and anonymity, separately or together, “create a zone of privacy to protect opinion and belief” (para. 12). Both are critical to the enjoyment of freedoms of opinion, expression, and association, the press, the right to privacy, and other rights.|
|Anonymity||The right to anonymity has to be equally protected to create a safe online space for not only whistle blowers but any individual. The gender perspective of anonymity, therefore, has to be equally considered during every debate around surveillance and/or anonymity as it is largely women who feel watched over. From being unable to explore their sexuality to searching for something private on Google, they often feel watched, with the fear that their searches will be publicized without consent.||12. It is our inalienable right to choose, express, and experiment with our diverse sexualities on the internet. Anonymity enables this.|
|AGENCY, CONSENT, AUTOMONY|
|Tech-related VAW||VAW that is committed, abetted or aggravated through the use of ICTs and in online spaces are part of the continuum of violence against women and is a significant barrier to women’s and girls’ ability to take advantage of the opportunities that ICT provide for the full realisation of women’s human rights and development.
Violence online and tech-related violence are part of the continuum of gender-based violence. The misogynistic attacks, threats, intimidation, and policing experienced by women and queers LGBTQI people is are real, harmful, and alarming. It is our collective responsibility as different internet stakeholders to prevent, respond to, and resist this violence.”
|In the same way we face risks offline, in the streets and in our homes, women and girls can face specific dangers and risks on the internet such as online harassment, cyberstalking, privacy invasions with the threat of blackmail, viral ‘rape videos’ and for young women in particular, the distribution of ‘sex videos’ that force survivors to relive the trauma of sexual assault every time it is reposted online, via mobile phone or distributed in other ways. These forms of violence may also be mediated through technology but they cause psychological and emotional harm, reinforce prejudice, damage reputation, cause economic loss and pose barriers to participation in public life. Reporting and responses of these violations are generally limited and the harm and abuse are poorly understood.|
|Digital Security||Digital security is the protection of your digital identity – the network or Internet equivalent of your physical identity. Digital security includes the tools you use to secure your identity and technology in the online and mobile world.
In the face of increased human rights surveillance of ever-growing online traffic and the multiplication of commercial interest in user data, we need strategies and tools to circumvent threats to our privacy and information.
|Holistic Security focuses on interventions and practices which ensure the agency, safety and well-being of human rights defenders from a more holistic perspective; one which includes the physical, psycho-social and digital aspects of security. Currently, these tend to be addressed in relative isolation to each other.
FPI – 10. Surveillance by default is the tool of patriarchy to control and restrict rights both online and offline. The right to privacy and to exercise full control over our own data is a critical principle for a safer, open internet for all. Equal attention needs to be paid to surveillance practices by individuals against each other, as well as the private sector and non-state actors, in addition to the state.
|Data Retention||The collection, use, disclosure and retention of data must comply with transparent privacy policies and that all people have the right to privacy and freedom from surveillance.
Data kept by ISPs, social networking platforms, government (biometrics etc). We often give away data unknowingly. Implications for digital security, privacy, surveillance and right to freedom of expression.
|Security and privacy||Online security and privacy is about the right to selectively reveal information about one’s self. This includes erethe right to communicate free of surveillance and interception (including the right to use encryption), and protecting one’s identity from being revealed to (or stolen by) third parties. Online security and privacy contain a technical component as well. Users should always have up to date anti-virus software and consider the use of secure and private communications applications. Online service providers (like social media sites), must ensure that their security and privacy policies are consistent with human rights standards, and that their users have the right to control their own data. Security and privacy are not an end-point, but a habit. Be careful when using public computers such as libraries or internet cafés. And above all, know who you are trusting your data to.|
|Multi-Stakeholderism||A very broad term that describes groupings of civil society, the private sector, the public sector, the media and other stakeholders that come together for a common purpose. It is often used with words like “partnership” and “consultation”. In multi-stakeholder partnerships the partners have a shared
understanding that they play different roles and have different purposes, but that they can pursue collective goals through collaboration and common activities to achieve such goals. These partnerships are voluntary, with participation driven by the perceived benefits they may see emerging from the process. Such partnerships are increasingly being used to challenge and lobby for change in policy processes.
|Participatory decision-making||Including all actors who will be impacted on by outcomes in the process of decision making. A process where everyone has the space to speak their mind, where differences of opinion are valued and an environment where group members do their best to understand one another and allow contradictions to arise.|
|Open internet||An Open Internet means consumers can go where they want, when they want. Linked to Net Neutrality. It means innovators can develop products and services without asking for permission.
The idea of an open Internet is the idea that the full resources of the Internet and means to operate on it are easily accessible to all individuals and companies. This often includes ideas such as net neutrality, open standards, transparency, lack of internet censorship and low barriers of entry. The concept of the open Internet is sometimes expressed as an expectation of decentralised technological power. Linked to open source software.
Proponents often see net neutrality as an important component of an open Internet, where policies such as equal treatment of data and open web standards allow those on the Internet to easily communicate and conduct business without interference from a third party.
|Right to Freedom of expression||The right to FOE is a fundamental right protected by international human rights law. It creates a series of rights and responsibilities that colour all social communication and sets the rules on how to respond to differences in opinions.
The internet has greatly expanded possibilities and opportunities for freedom on expression. Publishing content, connecting with others. But also increasingly govts are suppressing, surveilling and monitoring expression and content.
|Encryption||Encryption means to scramble data in such a way that only someone with the secret code or key can read it. We use it to pass a secret message from one place to another without anyone else being able to read it. Encryption works by scrambling the original message with a very large digital number (key). This is done using advanced mathematics. It is illegal in some countries.|
|Zero- rating||Zero rating enables internet service providers to give customers a reprieve on broadband or mobile data caps for certain internet uses. While most online activity, such as web browsing, counts against your data cap, a service provider might decide to exempt a specific video streaming or messaging app from your monthly limits.||Zuckerberg’s internet.org offers users in developing countries access to a select group of services, like Facebook, news sites, and health information, without paying data charges. That’s possible because, in the countries where Internet.org operates, the group has negotiated these terms with local carriers.
It “gives away” some services but puts those services that aren’t available on the app at a disadvantage.
|Net neutrality||Non-discrimination by ISPs concerning the content available to users. Specialized services like “fast lanes” used by telcoms to the detriment of the availability or quality of internet access services. Prejudices those who cannot afford high-speed services.|
|Consent and privacy||In simple terms, the right to privacy is the right to be left alone. Privacy embodies the concept that individuals have the right to determine who has information about them and to control how, when and to what extent that information is communicated. The right to privacy is a fundamental human right. It is an important safeguard of individual autonomy and human dignity, as it allows individuals to make choices about how they live their lives. It is essential to the exercise and enjoyment of other fundamental human rights, particularly those related to freedom of expression and belief.|
|Right to be forgotten||Arisen from desires of individuals to “determine the development of their life in an autonomous way, without being perpetually stigmatised as a consequence of a specific action performed in the past.” Debates in respect to access to information, freedom of expression and whether creating a right to be forgotten would be a form on censorhip. But opposing concerns about problems such as revenge porn sites appearing in search engines listings for a person’s name, or references to petty crimes committed many years ago indefinitely remaining an unduly prominent part of a person’s footprint||11. Everyone has the right to be forgotten on the internet. This includes being able to access all our personal data and information online, and to be able to exercise control over, including knowing who has access to them and under what conditions, and being able to delete them forever. However, this right needs to be balanced against the right to access public information, transparency and accountability.|
|Intermediary liability||Need for intermediaries such as ISPs, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, to play a more active role in ensuring that they are not complicit in, and are combatting, the use of their platforms for the perpetration of gender-based harrassment and incitement to violence against women.|
|Patriarchy!||Patriarchy is the term used to describe the society in which we live today, characterised by current and historic unequal power relations between women and men whereby women are systematically disadvantaged and oppressed. This takes place across almost every sphere of life but is particularly noticeable in women’s under-representation in key state institutions, in decision-making positions and in employment and industry. Male violence against women is also a key feature of patriarchy. Women in minority groups face multiple oppressions in this society, as race, class and sexuality intersect with sexism for example.|
|Misognistic hate speech||The fact that gender-based violence is not explicitly defined as hate speech creates additional problems and requires continuous engagement from activists.|
|Hate Speech||Hate speech is commonly defined as any communication that disparages a person or group on the basis of certain characteristic such as race, color, ethnic or national origin, sex, sexual orientation, religion and other characteristics.|
|Intersectionality||Intersecting identities. intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination.
Various biological, social and cultural categories such as gender, race, class, ability, sexual orientation, religion, caste and other axes of identity interact on multiple and often simultaneous levels, contributing to systemic injustice and social inequality. Intersectionality holds that the classical conceptualizations of oppression within society, such as racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, and belief-based bigotry, do not act independently of one another. Instead, these forms of oppression interrelate, creating a system of oppression that reflects the “intersection” of multiple forms of discrimination